Pharmacological action - analgesic (opioid).
Possesses the properties of opioid receptor antagonist. Suppresses the CNS, has analgesic, sleeping pills, antic coughing effect. Excites mu-receptors and blocks kappa-receptors.
It is well absorbed by all parenteral routes of administration: it starts to work 2-3 minutes after an IV and 15 minutes after an IV or IV injection. It is 4-5 times less active when administered intravenously than with a V/m injection. Cmax after administration in muscle is observed after 0.5-1 h. T1/2 is 3-6 h. The liver undergoes biotransformation, metabolites are excreted with bile into intestine, and then with faeces are removed from the body. With urine, it is excreted in small amounts.
Use of the substance Nalbufin
Pain syndrome of average and expressed intensity in myocardial infarction, in preparation for surgery (prevention) and in the postoperative period; as an additional means of pain relief in general anesthesia.
Restrictions on use
Liver and kidney dysfunction, increased intracranial pressure, respiratory depression (including in uremia, exacerbation of bronchial asthma, severe infections), surgical interventions on the hepatobiliary system (possible spasm of the Oddi sphincter), pregnancy, childbirth, child and youth (under 18 years).
Side effects of the substance Nalbufin
From the nervous system and the senses: sleepiness, oppression of the center of breathing (small doses reduce and increase the depth of respiratory movements), headache, euphoria or depression, dysphoria, hallucinations.
Cardiovascular and blood (hematopoiesis, hemostasis): hypertension/hypotension, bradycardia/tachycardia, pulmonary edema.
GIT organs: dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, spastic pain.
Allergic reactions: anaphylactic or anaphylactoid shock, bronchospasm, hives, swelling of the throat, itching, sneezing.
Other: increased sweating, pain in the injection area.
General anesthetics, tranquilizers, sedatives, sleeping pills, alcohol increase the effect, including side effects (in combination therapy it is necessary to reduce the dose of nalbufin and / or these drugs).
Symptoms: increased side effects, loss of consciousness, comatose state, periodic respiration such as Cheyne-Stokes, pallor and lower skin temperature, lower body temperature, myosis; fatal outcome (paralysis of the respiratory center).
Treatment: gastric lavage, administration of specific antidotes - naloxone or nalorphine, oxygen therapy, maintenance of vital functions.